2018-05-26 Larry Desjardin 阅读:

Service providers, network equipment providers, and test equipment providers are all racing to deliver 5G wireless systems. We’ve all heard of the benefits of 5G: higher speeds, lower latencies, superior density. While fixed internet access is positioned to be the first major 5G application, many more are in the wings, including mobile applications. NeTednc


While much of the industry is opining on the future benefits of 5G, there are other benefits as well. The huge investments in components, equipment, and know-how will spin off benefits outside of directly 5G networking. Here are five I’ve identified. NeTednc


mmWave everything. Many 5G systems are based on the wide spectrum available at mmWave frequencies, essentially 30 GHz and above. Until now, these frequencies were the domain of military systems, satellite communication, and other comparatively niche applications. Not anymore. The giant investments into mmWave will produce a thriving commercial industry generating passive components, radios, power amps, antennas, and the like. Expect the prices of these components to drop steeply as volumes skyrocket, much to the benefit of existing applications. NeTednc

一切都在于mmWave。许多5G系统都是基于毫米波频率的宽频谱,基本上都在30 GHz及以上频段。一直以来,这些频率主要用于军事系统、卫星通信和其他相对专窄的应用领域。然而,这样局面将不复存在。对毫米波的巨大投资将催生一个繁荣的商用产业,尤其是无源器件、无线电、功率放大器和天线等相关产品。随着产量的飞速增长,预计这些器件的价格将急剧下降,这将为现有应用系统带来很多好处。NeTednc

Phased-array radar. One of the existing applications poised to benefit greatly from 5G mmWave is phased-array radar (Figure 1). Not only does phased-array radar share the same frequency bands, the beamforming techniques (Figure 2) are similar to those in 5G. After all, antenna beams are formed by the constructive and destructive interference of the signals received or radiated by each antenna element. This is true whether deployed in a cutting edge military defense system, or in a 5G base station streaming cat videos. The math that forms the beams is exactly the same. 5G mobile applications will add real-time tracking as well. The considerable investment into 5G low-cost phased array antennas, beamforming algorithms, and phase and amplitude adjustable components will lead to cost and productivity advancements for its higher end military cousins. An added benefit: the multichannel test equipment used to verify the beamforming design may be deployed for both sets of applications. NeTednc



Figure 1 The original Movandi BeamX prototype is a 64-element mmWave phased-array antenna based on bulk CMOS processes. This is one example of commercial industry racing to bring mmWave components to the market. Image courtesy of Movandi Corporation. NeTednc

图1:Movandi BeamX的原型是基于大批量CMOS工艺的64元毫米波相控阵天线。这是将毫米波组件推向市场的商业市场竞争的一个例子。图片来源:Movandi公司。 NeTednc


Figure 2 Beamforming is critical to 5G, as it is critical to phased-array radar systems. Both applications will benefit as the industry brings technology and test equipment to the market. Image courtesy of Keysight Technologies. NeTednc

图2:波束成形对5G的重要性跟它对相控阵雷达系统一样。随着行业在这个技术和测试设备方面的竞争发展,两类应用都将从中受益。图片来源:Keysight Technologies。NeTednc

Point-to-point mmWave backhaul. Often overlooked in the race to develop 5G radio technology are the backhaul challenges. That is, how does a 5G base station get access to the internet core when deployed? A traditional cellular deployment includes fiber cables that connect back to the service provider core network, which is then connected to the internet as a whole. Where possible and economical, this will still be the case. This, however, will be challenging for a number of reasons. First of all, 5G networks will be denser than traditional cellular networks, with base stations within 200 meters of each subscriber. NeTednc


Fiber may not be readily available at each point, and adding fiber impedes one of 5G’s key selling points- easy deployments. Ideally, small 5G base stations are deployed on the occasional street light, tapping its electrical wires for power and avoiding new trenches. Backhaul can then be performed by point-to-point mmWave links to each base station. This system design requires no edge fiber at all, a key benefit to neighborhoods tired of trenched out streets. Longer range point-to-point links can be used for more rural residents. Economies of scale will make point-to-point wireless backhaul a more feasible alternative. NeTednc


Gaming. Some of the top observers of network performance are gamers. This is due to gaming being dependent on both, high bandwidth and low latency. However, gamers are dependent on their local ISP's performance, which is often optimized for video streaming. It is estimated that over 70% of the internet traffic in North America is video streaming, which
requires high bandwidths but is not latency critical. 5G may change that. NeTednc


With URLLC (ultra-reliable low latency communications), 5G promises latencies under 1 ms, making it suitable for remote robotics or even remote surgery. The entire network chain must be designed for low latency, not just the wireless portion. As these designs proliferate, low latency performance will become more available, whether on a 5G network or a wired network. These short latencies enable tactical feedback in numerous applications, including gaming, remote control (Figure 3), and factory automation. Expect these applications to flourish. NeTednc


tactical feedback 这个英文有点问题,但我还是把中文加上了,根据上下文猜测是这个意思。NeTednc


Figure 3 With 5G communications, a surgeon could wear a sensing glove while performing remote surgery. Once the network is provisioned for low latency communication, a myriad of applications become possible. Image courtesy of Ericsson. NeTednc


Disrupting the edge. The internet has been an incredible disruptor, not just of the communication network, but of the general economy as a whole. The core communication network has been transformed from a circuit-switched network delivering voice services to a packet-switched network delivering data services. Most cell phone plans today include free long-distance dialing, but you pay for data. While the core network has been transformed due to optical backbones and Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), the edge retains the same topology it has always had: a phone or cable company offers internet service over wired lines. NeTednc


With 5G, this is about to change. Fixed wireless access is an alternative method for internet access, and adds much needed competition to the ISP market. The recent debate about net neutrality highlighted fears that monopolistic ISPs would restrict internet access. Competitive ISP alternatives, such as with 5G, make this less likely, as doing so would lead to customers switching to their competitor. Even the threat of new entrants is likely to temper the actions of an existing ISP. After all, realizing that cellular providers are actively ranking city markets for best 5G opportunities, who wants to be the ISP that invites them in by mistreating their own customers? NeTednc

随着5G的发展,这个局面即将改变。固定无线接入是互联网接入的一种替代方案,将会为ISP市场带来迫切需要的竞争。最近关于网络中立性的争论突显了人们的担忧:处于垄断地位的ISP服务商试图限制互联网接入。而5G将成为现有ISP服务的有力竞争者,使得互联网接入限制不大可行,因为这会导致客户转向新的竞争对手。新进入者的威胁也可能会迫使现有ISP做出一些改变。毕竟,移动电话服务商也知道城市市场是5G的大好机会,谁想因为怠慢自己的客户而引狼入室呢? NeTednc

This is not to say 5G networks will be net neutral. Paid prioritization, particularly for low latency communications, is expected. These are specialized networks that don’t fit the current ISP business model. A hospital may pay for a low-latency service between itself and its ambulances to perform on-scene triage surgery. NeTednc

But why stop there? Perhaps all low-latency applications will have a similar model. Gaming, robotics, education, medicine, and many other services may pay for specialized network features optimized for their needed characteristics. In the end, the edge may be transformed from a one-size-fits-all-love-it-or-leave-it architecture to one with a spectrum of performance attributes, enabling more applications. NeTednc



And that may be 5G's largest unintended benefit of them all.

—Larry Desjardin is a regular contributor to EDN's Test Cafe. He served in several R&D and executive management positions with Hewlett-Packard and Agilent Technologies.NeTednc

— Larry Desjardin是EDN Test Cafe栏目的撰稿人。他曾在惠普和安捷伦科技公司担任多个研发和管理职位。NeTednc

《EDN电子技术设计》2018年6月刊版权所有,英文原文:Five unintended benefits of 5G, 转载请注明来源及链接。NeTednc


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Larry Desjardin
Larry Desjardin是Modular Methods LLC公司总裁,这是一家专注于快速增长的模块化仪器行业的咨询公司。Larry 曾任职于惠普(现为Agilent Technologies),担任多个研发和执行管理职位。作为研发经理,Larry 获得了John Fluke Sr. Memorial Award,以表彰他对VXI总线的创建所做的贡献。在2011年退休前,他担任了安捷伦模块化产品运营的总经理。Larry 拥有加州理工学院的工程学士学位和斯坦福大学的电气工程硕士学位。Larry 还为“测试与测量世界(Test and Measurement World)”写了一列“他山之石”专栏。
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